Nanotheranostics 2018; 2(3):258-268. doi:10.7150/ntno.26208

Research Paper

Clinically-Applicable Perfluorocarbon-Loaded Nanoparticles For In vivo Photoacoustic, 19F Magnetic Resonance And Fluorescent Imaging

Edyta Swider1*, Khalid Daoudi2*, Alexander H. J. Staal1, Olga Koshkina1, N. Koen van Riessen1, Eric van Dinther1, I. Jolanda M. de Vries1,3, Chris L. de Korte2, Mangala Srinivas1✉

1. Department of Tumor Immunology, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
2. Medical UltraSound Imaging Center (MUSIC), Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
3. Department of Medical Oncology, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
*Both authors contributed equally

Abstract

Photoacoustic imaging (PAI) is an emerging biomedical imaging technique that is now coming to the clinic. It has a penetration depth of a few centimeters and generates useful endogenous contrast, particularly from melanin and oxy-/deoxyhemoglobin. Indocyanine green (ICG) is a Food and Drug Administration-approved contrast agents for human applications, which can be also used in PAI. It is a small molecule dye with limited applications due to its fast clearance, rapid protein binding, and bleaching effect.

Methods: Here, we entrap ICG in a poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles together with a perfluorocarbon (PFC) using single emulsion method. These nanoparticles and nanoparticle-loaded dendritic cells were imaged with PA, 19F MR, and fluorescence imaging in vitro and in vivo.

Results: We formulated particles with an average diameter of 200 nm. The encapsulation of ICG within nanoparticles decreased its photobleaching and increased the retention of the signal within cells, making it available for applications such as cell imaging. As little as 0.1x106 cells could be detected in vivo with PAI using automated spectral unmixing. Furthermore, we observed the accumulation of ICG signal in the lymph node after subcutaneous injection of nanoparticles.

Conclusion: We show that we can label primary human dendritic cells with the nanoparticles and image them in vitro and in vivo, in a multimodal manner. This work demonstrates the potential of combining PAI and 19F MRI for cell imaging and lymph node detection using nanoparticles that are currently produced at GMP-grade for clinical use.

Keywords: nanoparticles, multimodal imaging, perfluoro-15-crown-5-ether, indocyanine green, 19F MRI

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY-NC) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/). See http://ivyspring.com/terms for full terms and conditions.
How to cite this article:
Swider E, Daoudi K, Staal AHJ, Koshkina O, van Riessen NK, van Dinther E, de Vries IJM, de Korte CL, Srinivas M. Clinically-Applicable Perfluorocarbon-Loaded Nanoparticles For In vivo Photoacoustic, 19F Magnetic Resonance And Fluorescent Imaging. Nanotheranostics 2018; 2(3):258-268. doi:10.7150/ntno.26208. Available from http://www.ntno.org/v02p0258.htm