Nanotheranostics 2022; 6(4):365-375. doi:10.7150/ntno.70999 This issue

Review

Emerging Role of Edible Exosomes-Like Nanoparticles (ELNs) as Hepatoprotective Agents

P. Debishree Subudhi1, Chhagan Bihari2, Shiv Kumar Sarin3, Sukriti Baweja1✉

1. Department of Molecular and Cellular Medicine, Institute of Liver and Biliary Sciences, Delhi, India.
2. Department of Pathology, Institute of Liver and Biliary Sciences, Delhi, India.
3. Department of Hepatology, Institute of Liver and Biliary Sciences, Delhi, India.

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Citation:
Subudhi PD, Bihari C, Sarin SK, Baweja S. Emerging Role of Edible Exosomes-Like Nanoparticles (ELNs) as Hepatoprotective Agents. Nanotheranostics 2022; 6(4):365-375. doi:10.7150/ntno.70999. Available from https://www.ntno.org/v06p0365.htm

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Abstract

Graphic abstract

Liver diseases are responsible for over 2 million deaths each year and the number is rapidly increasing. There is a strong link between edibles, gut microbiota, liver fat and the liver damage. There are very limited therapeutic options for treatment specifically for Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and Non-Alcoholic liver disease (NAFLD). Recently, identified Edible Exosomes-like nanoparticles (ELNs) are plant derived membrane bound particles, released by microvesicular bodies for cellular communication and regulate immune responses against many pathogens. Many studies have identified their role as hepatoprotective agent as they carry bioactive material as cargoes which are transferred to recipient cells and affect various biological functions in liver. They are also known to carry specific miRNA, which increases the copy number of beneficial bacteria and the production of lactic acid metabolites in gut and hence restrains from liver injury through portal vein. Few in-vitro studies also have been reported about the anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and detoxification properties of ELNs which again protects the liver. The properties such as small size, biocompatibility, stability, low toxicity and non-immunogenicity make ELNs as a better therapeutic option. But, till now, studies on the effect of ELNs as therapeutics are still at its infancy yet promising. Here we discuss about the isolation, characterization, their role in maintaining the gut microbiome and liver homeostasis. Also, we give an outline about the latest advances in ELNs modifications, its biological effects, limitations and we propose the future prospective of ELNs as therapeutics.

Keywords: Edible exosome-like nanoparticles (ELNs), Gut microbiome, Liver, Cellular communication and Therapeutics