1. Kidney Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
2. Research Center for Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology, Biomedicine Institute, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
3. Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
4. Department of Organic Chemistry, Bioorganic Chemistry and Biotechnology, Silesian University of Technology, B. Krzywoustego 4, 44-100, Gliwice, Poland
5. Department of Anatomical Sciences, Maragheh University of Medical Sciences, Maragheh 78151-55158, Iran
Articular cartilage has a low self-repair capacity due to the lack of vessels and nerves. In recent times, nanofiber scaffolds have been widely used for this purpose. The optimum nanofiber scaffold should stimulate new tissue's growth and mimic the articular cartilage nature. Furthermore, the characteristics of the scaffold should match those of the cellular matrix components of the native tissue to best merge with the target tissue. Therefore, selective modification of prefabricated scaffolds based on the structure of the repaired tissues is commonly conducted to promote restoring the tissue. A thorough analysis is required to find out the architectural features of scaffolds that are essential to make the treatment successful. The current review aims to target this challenge. The article highlights different optimization approaches of nanofibrous scaffolds for improved cartilage tissue engineering. In this context, the influence of the architecture of nanoscaffolds on performance is discussed in detail. Finally, based on the gathered information, a future outlook is provided to catalyze development in this promising field.
Keywords: Articular cartilage, Scaffolds, Articular cartilage defect, Collagen type II